Ihwal 51%

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AKHIR Agustus, Menteri ESDM umumkan divestasi 51% saham PT Freeport-McMoRan Indonesia/PT FI. Dibaca harfiah, posisi saham pemerintah RI jadi ‘mayoritas’. Wow! Kini kita superior di tambang Grasberg—penghasil emas terbesar dan tembaga terbesar ketiga di dunia. Dalam sehari, gunung di Mimika itu menghibahkan 14,58 ton emas, perak 55,00 ton, dan 14.297,75 ton tembaga pada 2008. Dengan cadangan mineral 2,5 miliar metrik ton, kita jadi ‘tuan’—setelah setengah abad porsi kepemilikan pemerintah di sana hanya 1%?

Tunggu dulu. Fatsal divestasi itu hanya satu dari empat butir paket kesepakatan. Rilis Ignasius Jonan kelewat prematur. Hasil rundingan itu tak menguntungkan kita, ujar Ahmad Redi dari Untar. Poin-poinnya bermasalah karena pemberian IUPK/izin usaha pertambangan khusus kepada PT FI tak sesuai dengan UU Minerba. Dalam PP 1/2017, urutan penawaran saham adalah: pemerintah pusat, Pemda, BUMN, BUMD, swasta nasional.

Ada kegentingan apa hingga kita kudu beli? Berdasarkan kontrak karya perpanjangan 1991, PT FI berakhir pada 2021. Tanpa pembelian saham pun, wilayah bekas PT FI otomatis jadi milik pemerintah. Gentingkah beli saham ketika hutang luar negeri Indonesia awal 2017 meroket jadi Rp4.274 triliun; yang jatuh tempo 2018-2019 sebesar Rp810 T (Rp390 T pada 2018 sebesar dan Rp420 T pada 2019)? Jangan lupa, ekses krisis 1998, RI masih terlilit utang hampir Rp250 T.

Berapa nilai divestasi 51% itu? Dihitung dengan metode fair market value, sekitar Rp107 T. Jika pakai metode replacement, ketemunya Rp 40-an T. Katakan aset seluruh BUMN pertambangan diakumulasi. “Mereka (PT Aneka Tambang Tbk, PT Bukit Asam Tbk,

PT Timah Tbk, dan PT Inalum) mustahil punya dana Rp107 triliun. Totalnya hanya Rp58 T,” ujar Yustinus Prastowo, Executive Director Center fot Indonesia Taxation Analysis. (Jika mereka) berhutang melebihi nilai total aset, itu melanggar aturan debt to equity ratio.

Berapa kontribusi PT FI? Presdir PT FI, Chappy Hakim, menyebut angka 0,8% terhadap PDB Indonesia. Total jenderal hanya Rp 8 T/tahun. Itu jauh di bawah sumbangan PT Telkom (Rp20 T/tahun) atau TKI Rp144 T pada 2015 dan cukai rokok Rp139,5 T. Pada 2015, setoran Freeport hanya US$368 juta/Rp4,9 T; mencakup royalti, pajak dan pungutan lainnya. Sejak 2012, mereka tak bayar dividen.

Adapun investasi saham di bisnis tambang itu mirip-mirip judi. “Kalau rugi harus setor uang, kalau untung harus direinvest,” kata Amri P. Wirabumi, konsultan aktuaria. Dengan saham 100% di Pertamina dan PLN, keduanya toh hanya jadi beban rakyat. Di PT Antam Tbk, Timah Tbk dan Bukit Asam Tbk, sejak dulu saham kita ≥50%, toh tak ada bukti memakmurkan rakyat seperti diharapkan Wakil Ketua DPR, Taufik Kurniawan.

 

Salam,

Irsyad Muchtar

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